The imperative of uniformity in Pakistan’s educational system flows from the  Constitution of Pakistan, which entrusts the St ate with the responsibility of organizing an  equitable and effective education system, with  an aim to enhance the overall well being of  Pakistanis. The national educational systems in different countries have evolved with the State in  such a way that they appear to  flow from each other. That is the reason modern States have one  educational system, customarily called the ‘national educational system’. No other system in a  State, except the national educational system,  shares the ideals, objectives, and purposes of a  State. The institution of Education in fact, acts as  the repository of the trust that the citizens have  in the State, mediating the achievements of the past  with the aspirations of the future for all the  citizens of any given State. It is this correlation between the State and the Educational System,  which bestows the singularity to the national educational system, making it a unified and unifying  entity. To promote and protect this uniformity, the national educational systems strive to establish  the uniformity in structures and modes of education throughout the country. Aware of the  importance of the local cultural context, the new National Education Policy supports the  reflection of the local cultures through curricula. As  the national educational systems also evolve  as a response to the particular demands of distinct ethnic, social, economic, religious, political  groups and communities, there is always room for diversity. This diversity can lend strength to  the educational outcomes, especially in a federation like Pakistan, if this does not work at cross  purposes with the uniformity, which any national sy stem would need to retain its uniformity and  to be able to offer a national response to challenges, which have the potential and possibility of  affecting whole of the country such as the loss  of competitiveness, extremism, security threats,  and subversion of national values, etc.    17.        The emergence and continued presence of parallel systems of education in Pakistan i.e.,  private schools and Madaris, apparently violates th e principle of the uniformity of the educational  system adversely.. The Policy is aware of the historical context which favoured the emergence of  these parallel systems and endeavors to encourage these systems to blend in the national  educational system in such a way that they strengthen the uniformity of the national educational  system, especially in terms of Curricula, Educational Standards, Costs and Conditions and  Learning environment. The provision of educational services is a public function. The  Constitution of Pakistan expects the public sector to  take lead in performing this public function.  The relative failure of the governmental educational system has resulted in the emergence of the  alternative education provider i.e. the private sector. When, a private educational institution is  providing educational services for a fee or as a public good, with an almost total administrative  autonomy, it remains a public function. The assurance of uniformity therefore, would remain the  responsibility of the State. It can do it entirely on its own or can develop public-private  partnerships to ensure that the exigency of uniformity in standards and purpose of education is  not compromised.  18.       The loss of uniformity in our educational  system is best evidenced in the lack of  beneficial and synergistic linkages between the Technical, Vocational, Professional and scientific  education sub sectors. If Pakistan has to become a  talent rich country, it needs to integrate and gel  all the four with the national educational system.   19.        Governance refers to the way in which an y social unit – from society as a whole to the  smallest community organization – organizes itself politically to undertake a range of public  functions. Governance in the educational system is  very weak. The Educational Policy, informed  by the ideals of democratic  governance, which implies a partnership between the principal  societal actors in the making and implementation  of public policy, would try to effect a better  allocation and management of public resources,  wherever necessary involving the private sector.   11 20.        The unity of objectives of our educational efforts – whether in the public or private sector  – is spelt through the over-arching principles of  access, quality, affordability and relevance. The  way the Pakistani educational system has developed over time, we do notice a certain dispersion  of the objective of the unity, manifesting itself in  the form of parallel educational systems and  their equivalence, and the issues of medium of  instruction, and representation of minorities, etc.  The Policy is guided by the principle of creating a minimum level of uniformity in order to  protect the uniformity of the Pakistan’s educational system as a tool of social progress and of all  round development in an increasingly globalized and competitive world.   21.        English is an international language, and important for competition in a globalized world  order. Urdu is our national language that connects  people all across Pakistan and is a symbol of  national cohesion and integration. In addition, there are mother tongues / local vernaculars in the  country that are markers of ethnic and cultural richness and diversity. The challenge is that a child  is able to carry forward the cultural assets and be  at the same time, able to compete nationally and  internationally.