The imperative of uniformity in Pakistan’s educational system flows from the Constitution of Pakistan, which entrusts the St ate with the responsibility of organizing an equitable and effective education system, with an aim to enhance the overall well being of Pakistanis. The national educational systems in different countries have evolved with the State in such a way that they appear to flow from each other. That is the reason modern States have one educational system, customarily called the ‘national educational system’. No other system in a State, except the national educational system, shares the ideals, objectives, and purposes of a State. The institution of Education in fact, acts as the repository of the trust that the citizens have in the State, mediating the achievements of the past with the aspirations of the future for all the citizens of any given State. It is this correlation between the State and the Educational System, which bestows the singularity to the national educational system, making it a unified and unifying entity. To promote and protect this uniformity, the national educational systems strive to establish the uniformity in structures and modes of education throughout the country. Aware of the importance of the local cultural context, the new National Education Policy supports the reflection of the local cultures through curricula. As the national educational systems also evolve as a response to the particular demands of distinct ethnic, social, economic, religious, political groups and communities, there is always room for diversity. This diversity can lend strength to the educational outcomes, especially in a federation like Pakistan, if this does not work at cross purposes with the uniformity, which any national sy stem would need to retain its uniformity and to be able to offer a national response to challenges, which have the potential and possibility of affecting whole of the country such as the loss of competitiveness, extremism, security threats, and subversion of national values, etc. 17. The emergence and continued presence of parallel systems of education in Pakistan i.e., private schools and Madaris, apparently violates th e principle of the uniformity of the educational system adversely.. The Policy is aware of the historical context which favoured the emergence of these parallel systems and endeavors to encourage these systems to blend in the national educational system in such a way that they strengthen the uniformity of the national educational system, especially in terms of Curricula, Educational Standards, Costs and Conditions and Learning environment. The provision of educational services is a public function. The Constitution of Pakistan expects the public sector to take lead in performing this public function. The relative failure of the governmental educational system has resulted in the emergence of the alternative education provider i.e. the private sector. When, a private educational institution is providing educational services for a fee or as a public good, with an almost total administrative autonomy, it remains a public function. The assurance of uniformity therefore, would remain the responsibility of the State. It can do it entirely on its own or can develop public-private partnerships to ensure that the exigency of uniformity in standards and purpose of education is not compromised. 18. The loss of uniformity in our educational system is best evidenced in the lack of beneficial and synergistic linkages between the Technical, Vocational, Professional and scientific education sub sectors. If Pakistan has to become a talent rich country, it needs to integrate and gel all the four with the national educational system. 19. Governance refers to the way in which an y social unit – from society as a whole to the smallest community organization – organizes itself politically to undertake a range of public functions. Governance in the educational system is very weak. The Educational Policy, informed by the ideals of democratic governance, which implies a partnership between the principal societal actors in the making and implementation of public policy, would try to effect a better allocation and management of public resources, wherever necessary involving the private sector. 11 20. The unity of objectives of our educational efforts – whether in the public or private sector – is spelt through the over-arching principles of access, quality, affordability and relevance. The way the Pakistani educational system has developed over time, we do notice a certain dispersion of the objective of the unity, manifesting itself in the form of parallel educational systems and their equivalence, and the issues of medium of instruction, and representation of minorities, etc. The Policy is guided by the principle of creating a minimum level of uniformity in order to protect the uniformity of the Pakistan’s educational system as a tool of social progress and of all round development in an increasingly globalized and competitive world. 21. English is an international language, and important for competition in a globalized world order. Urdu is our national language that connects people all across Pakistan and is a symbol of national cohesion and integration. In addition, there are mother tongues / local vernaculars in the country that are markers of ethnic and cultural richness and diversity. The challenge is that a child is able to carry forward the cultural assets and be at the same time, able to compete nationally and internationally.